Since time immemorial different types of jewellery have been adorned by royal families. Following this culture, several people have took interest in wearing jewelries matching their outfits. Jewellery is worn for various reasons. Jewelries commonly referred as ornaments to be worn either attaching to the different parts of the body or the outfits. There are various types of metals used to make a number of types of jewelries for specific occasions. With the increased activity in social media and pictures posted there, everyone wants to look elegant top to bottom there is a high demand for looking perfect owing to the different types of jewelries available for different occasions such as casual parties, weddings etc. People from both sexes wear jewellery based on their culture. However, between the two sexes, women are the most consistent ones interested in adorning jewellery, regardless of age and culture. While producing mass jewelries designers and jewelry makers keep in mind the demand and produce different kinds of jewelries according to that.
Considering the types of jewelries available on the basis of attaching to the different body parts and also, on the basis of jewelry materials and occasions there are two categories mentioned below according to the types of jewelry.
1. On the basis of body parts
Under this category, the jewelry types are listed on the basis of where to wear the jewelries and which body part is to be adorned by which type of jewelry.
Earring is a piece of jewellery worn to adorn the ears. Earrings are generally put on by piercing the earlobe, although piercing can be done in any part of the ear. If the piercing is on the upper part of the external ear, it is called cartilage piercings. An individual can wear more than one or two earrings in the ear. There are a variety of designs for the earring to wear in the earlobe since it is the lowermost part of the ear one can wear big hoops, long dangling and drop earrings. For the upper part earring, one can wear different kinds of studs. These earrings are also made of a variety of materials like steel, glass, silver, gold, etc.
Women wear the necklace as a jewelry to adorn the neck. Wearing necklaces have been considered a status symbol since decades ago. These jewelries are made using precious stones and metals. Necklaces generally come in the shape of a band or a chain. There are varieties of designs in necklace pieces like western designs, ethnic designs etc. sometimes there is something suspended from the chain like a locket, pendant, chain or stone.
Bracelets admire the wrist of a person as it is a piece of jewellery to be worn in the wrist. It comes in a variety of designs whereas the shape is mostly round or oval as regard to the common shape of an individual’s wrist. However, based on the function one can choose to wear bracelets. One can wear bracelets according to the personal preferences as it is a fashion accessory with sparkling and colourful charms. Bracelets are mostly in the shape of chains or made with beads and stones, although they are different than bangles but sometimes with single, inflexible loop, a bracelet is considered as a bangle. Often it can be worn in ankles and then it’s called an anklet.
While generally there are buttons to secure the cuffs of a shirt it is cuff links that beautifies the cuffs of a shirt. From glass, stone to leather etc. there are different materials used for making cufflinks. One can use cuff links specifically for shirts with button holes on their cuffs.
Rings are worn on fingers and so it is also called finger rings. A ring is usually a round band that adorns the finger, nose, toes etc. Although there is a wide range of rings like bracelets, earrings, neck rings, toe rings, etc. but only a hand ring is considered a ring, made from different materials like gold, silver, platinum, etc.
However, the above mentioned jewelleries are mostly common types of jewelleries that are usually available and can be seen to be worn on a regular basis by several people. But other than the above mentioned types of jewelleries there are other many jewelleries based on to be worn on different body parts and those include armlet, waist-belt, nose-ring, broach, etc.
2. On the basis of Jewelry Design
While we speak of the types of jewelry, the designs play an important role and under this category the jewelry types have been listed on the basis of the designs and materials and as they are commonly known in the jewelry market.
This kind of jewellery is also commonly known as 'vintage jewellery' and these two terms are used interchangeably. However, antique and vintage jewellery are not same and there is a difference in the time period. antique jewellery is considered to be a hundred years old or more whereas a piece of vintage jewellery is nearly at least fifty years old. These jewelry designs are classic and is never 'out of fashion'. These jewelries are not worn on a regular basis and only occasionally because they are valuable and suitable only with classy outfit and look. Also not many people have access to vintage and antique jewelry because it is not easy to come by. Hence such jewellery is expensive. a piece of antique jewellery is sold on the basis of actual weight of the precious metal it is made of and/or the gemstones it is studded with.
Temple jewellery is mainly worn by Bharatnatyam dancers. This jewellery is inspired by the tyoe of ornaments used to adorn the Hindu gods and goddesses idols in South India. Usually Temple jewellery is made of silver and then turned into gold plated. Often temple jewelries are created using the materials such as rubies, white sapphires and pearls. There are types of temple jewelries- simple necklaces, bangles, earrings and nose-pins. From odiyanums (waist belts) to vankis (armbands) there are a number of temple jewelleries including the ornaments for the hair.
Bead jewellery is mainly considered as a piece of jewelry made of different types of designed beads which is a small decorative object. Beads are worn in strands, with the holes pierced in it, the beads are joined with strings or chains and thus formed. Beads are available in a wide variety of materials from pearls, glass and wood to metals such as gold, silver, copper, etc.
As the name suggests, this jewellery is worn by the brides on their weddings. With different cultures in allover the world there can be a different list of bridal jewellery in itself.
While most other parts of the world prefer simple platinum and diamond pendant and earring sets to be worn on their weddings, there are weddings in which brides wear royal and big pieces of jewelry on their big day. Bridal jewelries are generally heavy big pieces be it made of gold or diamond- these two being the most used metal for making bridal jewelries allover the world.
The bridal jewellery market in India sees a huge profit during the wedding seasons which is mostly November to March, being the cool and dry weather condition.
From head to toe brides are wrapped in jewelleries as they are adorned with sixteen adornment items which is commonly known as solah shringar which would include mang tika referred as forehead jewellery, armlet, necklace, earring, anklet, finger rings, bangles, waist belt, nosepin, toe rings etc.
Considering that weddings are the most common occasion in the world, there will be a never ending demand of bridal jewelry and this is one of the types of fine jewelries for which expert workmanship is required and thus the jewelry job in this sector is comparitvely higher than any other jewelry specialties.
Fashion jewelleries are commonly worn with trendy fashionable outfit and they are generally available in cheap prices for wearing on a regular basis with different clothes. Also known as costume jewellery, it is mostly junk jewellery for the material it is made of. It looks very fashionable without costing much because it is made from using cheap metals such as nickel and pewtar. The demand of fashion jewelries are the most in the market and hence this is one sector where one can find jewellery job for making easily available fashion jewelries.
When we speak of jewellery, the list is absolutely incomplete without mentioning the handmade jewelries as there are several craftsman who make jewellery using their skills by their hands. Goldsmiths are experts in operating the step by step jewellery making process from melting the material, designing and forming and also there are stone setter who completes the design by including gemstones to the jewelry. It needs many steps of good workmanship and often a time-consuming task that requires special tools to be used manually for making handmade unique jewellery design. The beauty of handmade jewellery lies in the fine detail and intricate workmanship of each piece. There are lots of opportunities in this type of jewelry making for goldsmiths and other jewellery makers who are seeking jewellery jobs.
In Sanskrit language, Kundan means “pure gold”. Kundan jewellery refers to a variety of setting gems as it usually includes uncut diamonds using 24 carat gold foil. In Kundan jewellery designs, the purpose of 24k gold foil is to hold the stone..
In Kundan jewelry settings there are other gems as commonly used are emeralds, rubies, sapphires, spinels and pearls. Modern Kundan pieces also include semi-precious stones such as tourmalines, onyx and turquoise. Although being available in various parts of the India, the pink city of Jaipur is most popular destination for buying such jewellery. For the labour work and material availability and utilisation of rarely accessible and expensive stones, Kundan jewellery is considered to be expensive and luxurious jewellery type.
Minakari jewelry is thought to be the most royal type of jewelry considering its historic and unique design. Making this jewellery is considered to be a form of pure art made of enameling metal using vibrant colours and attractive design. Minakari word is derived from the Persian word mina which means heaven.
The craftsman of minakari jewellery is commonly known as the minakar. The process of making this jewellery is similar to any handmade jewellery, however a minakar is specialised in such design and artworks. However, minakari jewelleries being colourful, they have their own distinct style and color in respect to the various Indian cities. For example, In Lucknow the dominant minakari colour is green and blue which are enamelled on silver and in Varanasi the common color of minakari is a dusky pink or 'old rose'.
All these types of jewellery pieces are made with different processes and require workmanship on the basis of specialties. Often experiences make a difference in the jewelry jobs for example, a jewelry store specialising in manufacturing bridal jewelries will want an expert goldsmith who is specialised and experienced in making bridal jewelries. However, there are a lot of options and opportunities available in the jewelry making industry for interested people. Here is an interesting read for who want to take up the creative art of jewelry making and designing as their career.