Gemstone Industry

A Complete Guide to Gemstone Cutting Machines

Jennifer Olson

Jennifer Olson

January 31, 2024

Gemstone cutting is a delicate and intricate process that requires precision and skill. To achieve the perfect cut and shape, gemstone cutters rely on a variety of tools and machines. In this guide, we will explore the different types of gemstone cutting machines and their functions. Whether you are a gemstone enthusiast or a professional jeweler, this guide will provide you with valuable insights into the world of gemstone cutting.

Introduction to Gemstone Cutting Machines

Gemstone cutting machines play a crucial role in the gemstone industry, as they are responsible for transforming rough gemstones into beautifully cut and polished gems. These machines have revolutionized the gemstone cutting process, making it more efficient, precise, and consistent.

Gemstone cutting machines use various techniques to shape and polish gemstones. One of the most common methods is faceting, which involves cutting flat surfaces, known as facets, onto the gemstone to enhance its brilliance and sparkle. This process requires a high level of skill and precision, and the cutting machines are equipped with diamond-coated discs or laps that can grind and shape the gemstone with great accuracy.

The advancements in gemstone cutting machines have made it possible to cut gemstones of various shapes and sizes. From traditional round brilliant cuts to fancy cuts like emerald, princess, and pear, these machines can create a wide range of designs to suit individual preferences. Additionally, computer-controlled machines are now available, which allow for even more precise and intricate designs.

Gemstone cutting machines also save time and labor compared to traditional hand-cutting methods. They can process a large number of gemstones in a shorter period, ensuring a higher production rate. Moreover, these machines reduce the risk of human error and ensure consistent quality in every cut.

 ​What is a gemstone cutting machine and how to choose one?

Types of Gemstone Cutting Machines

Faceting Machines

Faceting machines consist of several components that work together to achieve precise and symmetrical cuts on gemstones. The main components include a motor-driven rotating lap, a dop stick to hold the gemstone, and a faceting head with index gears and angle adjustments. The lap, typically made of metal or composite material, is coated with diamond powder to provide the necessary cutting power.

Using a faceting machine, gemstone cutters can create various types of cuts, including the popular round brilliant cut, as well as fancy cuts like princess, emerald, and marquise. The machine allows the cutter to control the depth, angles, and facets of the gemstone, resulting in a customized and unique final product.

Gemstone cutting machines offer several advantages over traditional hand cutting methods. They ensure precision and consistency in the cutting process, allowing for accurate replication of designs. The machines also enable faster production rates, making it possible to cut multiple gemstones in a shorter time frame.

6" Lapidary Cabbing Machine

Cabbing Machines

Cabbing machines consist of a motorized base with a spinning lap wheel made of abrasive material such as diamond or silicon carbide. The gemstone is held against the spinning wheel, allowing the abrasive surface to grind away excess material and create the desired shape. The operator can control the speed and pressure applied to achieve precise cuts and smooth finishes.

One of the key advantages of cabbing machines is their versatility. They can be used to cut a wide range of gemstones, from soft stones like opal and turquoise to hard stones like sapphire and diamond. This makes them suitable for both professional jewelers and hobbyists.

Cabbing machines are also known for their efficiency and accuracy. With the right skills and techniques, these machines can produce consistent results, ensuring uniformity in shape and size. This is particularly important for creating matching gemstones for jewelry sets.

In addition to shaping, cabbing machines can also be used for polishing gemstones. By changing the abrasive wheel to a finer grit, the machine can buff the stone’s surface to a high luster, enhancing its brilliance and value.

Lapidary Saw Machines

Lapidary saw machines, also known as gemstone cutting machines, are essential tools in the world of gemstone cutting and shaping. These machines are specifically designed to cut and shape various types of gemstones with precision and accuracy.

Gemstone cutting machines come in different sizes and configurations to accommodate different cutting needs. They are equipped with a diamond blade that is capable of cutting through even the hardest gemstones. The blades are adjustable, allowing the operator to set the desired depth and angle of the cut.

One of the key advantages of lapidary saw machines is their ability to cut gemstones into various shapes and sizes. From simple round cuts to intricate faceted designs, these machines can bring out the natural beauty of gemstones.

In addition to cutting, lapidary saw machines can also be used for trimming and shaping gemstones. These machines enable lapidaries to create customized shapes and sizes according to the specific requirements of their customers. The art of lapidary is very important for creating stunning jewelry with gemstones.

Gemstone cutting machines are widely used in the jewelry industry, as well as by hobbyists and collectors. They provide a cost-effective and efficient way to produce gemstone pieces with high precision and quality.

To ensure safe and smooth operation, it is important to follow proper safety precautions when using lapidary saw machines. This includes wearing protective goggles, gloves, and following the manufacturer’s instructions.

Grinding and Polishing Machines

Grinding and Polishing machines are designed to shape, cut, and polish gemstones to enhance their beauty and value.

These machines are used to remove excess material from the gemstone, creating a rough shape. The machine uses abrasive wheels or discs to grind the gemstone, gradually shaping it into the desired form. This process requires precision and skill to ensure that the gemstone retains its natural brilliance.

Once the rough shape is achieved, polishing machines come into play. These machines use a series of finer abrasive materials to smooth the gemstone’s surface, revealing its true luster and shine. Polishing machines can bring out the vibrant colors and intricate patterns within the gemstone, enhancing its overall aesthetic appeal.

Factors to Consider when Choosing a Gemstone Cutting Machine

Choosing the right gemstone cutting machine is crucial for achieving high-quality results. Here are some factors to consider when selecting a machine:

Type of Gemstone

Different gemstones have different hardness levels and characteristics, which can affect the selection of a cutting machine. For example, harder gemstones like diamonds require more powerful machines with diamond-tipped blades, while softer gemstones like opals may require gentler cutting methods.

Cutting Technique

Consider the type of cuts and shapes you want to create on your gemstones. Some machines are better suited for faceting, while others excel at cabbing or slicing. Choose a machine that aligns with your preferred cutting technique.


Gemstone cutting machines range in price from affordable hobbyist models to high-end professional machines. Set a budget that suits your needs and consider the long-term investment value of the machine.

Size and Portability

If you have limited space or need to transport the machine frequently, consider its size and portability features. Smaller, lightweight machines are easier to handle and store in compact spaces.


Tips for Using Gemstone Cutting Machines

Gemstone cutting machines are essential tools for gemstone enthusiasts and professionals alike. These machines allow for precise and efficient cutting of gemstones, resulting in beautifully crafted pieces of jewelry. To make the most of these machines, here are some valuable tips to keep in mind:

  1. Safety First: Always prioritize safety when using gemstone cutting machines. Wear protective goggles and gloves to shield yourself from any potential hazards. Familiarize yourself with the machine’s safety features and follow the manufacturer’s instructions carefully.
  2. Choose the Right Machine: There are various types of gemstone cutting machines available, such as faceting, cabbing, and trim saws. Select a machine that best suits your needs and skill level. Consider factors like size, power, and versatility.
  3. Use Quality Gemstones: Ensure that you work with high-quality gemstones for optimal results. Inferior quality stones may chip or break during the cutting process. Select stones with good clarity and color to achieve stunning finished pieces.
  4. Practice Patience: Gemstone cutting is a meticulous process that requires patience. Take your time to understand the machine’s settings and controls. Start with simpler cuts before progressing to more complex designs.
  5. Maintain Sharp Blades: Sharp blades are crucial for precise cuts. Regularly inspect and sharpen the blades of your gemstone cutting machine. Dull blades can lead to uneven cuts and damage to the gemstone.
  6. Keep the Workspace Clean: Cleanliness is vital when using gemstone cutting machines. Clear the workspace of any debris or dust particles that can affect the cutting process. Regularly clean the machine and its components to prevent build-up and ensure smooth operation.
  7. Seek Professional Guidance: If you’re new to gemstone cutting, it’s advisable to seek guidance from experienced professionals or attend workshops. Learning from experts can help you understand the intricacies of gemstone cutting machines and improve your skills.


Gemstone cutting machines are essential tools for transforming rough gemstones into beautiful gems. Understanding the different types of machines available, considering important factors when choosing a machine, and following best practices for using these machines will help you achieve stunning results in your gemstone cutting endeavors. Whether you are a hobbyist or a professional, these machines empower you to unlock the full potential of gemstones and create breathtaking jewelry pieces.

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